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Silas Carter
Silas Carter

Subtitle Die Hard

Die-hard Trekkies awaited trailers like manna. There was no advance word about what they would be attached to, so it helped immeasurably to know someone who worked in a multiplex. My source was secondhand and, as such, not 100% reliable. So, when I heard that the local AMC Marlton 8 would be showing the Trek IV trailer ahead of Jumpin' Jack Flash starting on October 10, I headed off to the theater and bought a ticket to a movie I never would have otherwise seen. There was no Trek IV trailer and I can't remember a frame of the film to give an opinion about what I thought. Two weeks later, the rumor surfaced again, this time in association with Soul Man. Again, no trailer. Somewhat dejected and having no desire whatsoever to watch the movie, I decided to sneak into the theater next door which was playing Crocodile Dundee (a smash hit still packing them in after four weeks). I had already seen it but was up for a repeat viewing. And there, newly spliced into the trailer reel right before the movie, was what I had been searching for. I returned later in the day with a pocket (audio) cassette recorder. I paid for a Crocodile Dundee ticket but left as soon as I had seen (and recorded) the Trek IV trailer.

subtitle Die Hard

This trailer is subtitled This is the End, which comes with cryptic meaning beyond the fact that Gotham season 5 will conclude the series. Gotham City is in a state of pure chaos, with Commissioner Gordon doing his best to keep things from spiraling totally out of control. We see quite a few shots of various villains, including our new Bane who was previously revealed in some less-than-flattering photos. There are also shots of Cameron Monaghan as a character clearly meant to be The Joker who can't be called The Joker for weird business reasons, as well as The Riddler, Catwoman and someone that look suspiciously like Harley Quinn.

Part of the problem is that Warner Bros., the studio in control of DC, doesn't like to have different versions of the same characters on both the big and small screen at the same time. That's why Jerome couldn't be called The Joker and why that character who looks a lot like Harley Quinn may not be called Harley Quinn. In any case, Bruce Wayne (David Mazouz) is going to have his hands full this season before fully realizing his destiny. To hammer home the show's ultimate destination, this season's subtitle is revealed to be Legend of the Dark Knight in the trailer.

Recently, it was announced that season 5 had been extended to 12 episodes. Originally, it was only going to be a much shorter 10 episode final season. Fox wasn't certain that the series would be renewed at all following the conclusion of season 4. So die hard fans will have at least a little more DC action to look forward to before things wrap up. Gotham season 5 is set to debut on Thursday, January 3, 2019. Be sure to check out the brand new trailer from the Gotham YouTube channel below.

It would be hard to do much of a story about tourism these days. The economy here is in a freefall, predicted to decline 20 percent this year. The problem, many say, is the countrys president, Hugo Chavez.

Gen. GONZALEZ GONZALEZ: [subtitles] Chavez has Cubanized, or is trying to Cubanize, Venezuela. Hes created an image of differences and divisions among the population, making lower-class people believe that what they dont have was taken away by the upper classes.

JUAN FORERO: I do think it says something about Venezuelas unusual brand of democracy that this man, who has worked hard to overthrow Chavez, isnt in prison. Instead, hes free to speak out, and hes treated like a celebrity.

TEACHER: [subtitles] Since Chavez came into power, kids can stay at school all day from 8:00 in the morning until 3:00 in the afternoon. In addition, they give them breakfast, lunch and a snack.

JUAN FORERO: Its hard to tell how much people are benefiting. The government programs here in the barrio seem small-scale and haphazard. And the fact is, poverty has increased by 10 percent while Chavez has been in office. But in this neighborhood, people blame the opposition. They point to the coup and four national strikes for whats behind the countrys problems. And you cant miss their enthusiasm for Chavez.

Pres. HUGO CHAVEZ: [subtitles] I cannot make conclusions about the investigation because its not the role of the executive power directly. But I can tell you, for example, in looking for answers, but firm answers, the sad truth is there have not been any convictions for those crimes.

JUAN FORERO: Theres something about Chavez that is both hopeful and frustrating. Hes made a lot of promises and theres a lot expected of him, but at the same time, its hard to pin down the man or his accomplishments.

TINKARI GOSWAMI: [subtitles] The news of so many people dying at the Pentagon, so many people in America, the news that such a serious event took place, it has to reach places where newspapers arent available.

AMIT PRADHAN: [subtitles] I try to portray the facts about bin Laden to people who may not know about him. Is he really this vicious terrorist or just a devout Muslim? I just want to make them understand that.

AMIT PRADHAN: [as bin Laden] [subtitles] Our long struggle to liberate all Muslims from the infidels will continue for many years to come. But always remember one thing. Empowering jihad is every Muslims sacred duty. And at the right time, you will strengthen my powerful jihad.

GIRL IN AUDIENCE: [subtitles] This jatra showed bin Laden as a different man, a man concerned for the poor and for people who need him. Now I feel like Ive seen a more human side of bin Laden.

RENATA SIMONE: This is rush hour that day in Hong Kong. The economic and human impact of SARS has been devastating. This apartment complex had been hit the hardest. More than 320 people living here got sick from the virus, 42 died. It was one of the few places where I felt at risk. Most of the cases were in this building. Mr. Tsang-Kam-On was the only person who would talk to us.

SIMON YEUNG: [subtitles] When the medication could not relieve my suffering, I thought I was going to die. At the same time, I was struggling emotionally. As a priest, I know death is not a negative thing, but I kept struggling.

LINQI ZHANG: [on the phone] Hello? Hey, David, some of CPE results and then the plaque reduction have to wait till tomorrow. But CPE readings is encouraging. Leo went to do the first reading, and Richard followed. And the reading, I checked it. The reading are very consistent. All right, David. So you-- thats very encouraging news. And enjoy your meeting. Thats good enough.

DAVID HO: [press conference] We are certainly pleased with the result that several of these peptides now actually protected the cells from SARS virus infection. So this is not testing in animals, this is not testing in patients. This is the very first step. And due to the good work of Richard Kao here, Leo Poon and Linqi himself, they have been slaving away day and night in the laboratory. And I think its been a heroic effort, and I would say that some of the heroes are here in front of you.

At the termination of slavery in the U.S., the speaker reflected on what had been an accepted economic mainstay in the system of slavery and what potential for change was now available for all U.S. citizens. He urged his audience to take advantage of the opportunity to prosper by adopting a Christian lifestyle, avoiding "hard spirits," and focusing on civil rights.

The writer suggests that the free people of color can help the slaves by concentrating on improving their own lives through education, industry, and economy. He believes that fighting prejudice involves presenting an intelligent, hard-working social presence.

SEX, SEX, SEX, SEX. That's all these biologists seem to haveon their minds. As Elsa Maxwell once said: "Too many peoplehave sex on the brain—and that's no place for it." Butbefore we get to the good stuff, we need to talk about this bitof jargon "undulipodia" or "little wavingfoot"—sounds rather like a parody of an American Indianname, doesn't it?The senior editor, Lynn Margulis' first two sentences under theheading of "Terminology" are: "The senior editorsand contributors nearly came to blows concerning aspects ofterminology. We are dealing with the collapse of the walledstructures of academic disciplines such as protozoology."(p. xii) Undulopodia is the term which Margulis wants tosubstitute for cilia and flagella (which are "nearly"identical) in eukaryotes. The application of the term flagellawould then be restricted to "extracellular","intrinsically nonmotile" organelles of prokaryotes.Confused? It gets worse. "Mastigote" is now to be thenew term for the "traditional flagellates". And this is only the beginning. It get's really quiteinteresting. For a very long time, protozoa have been describedas single-celled animals. However, some recent biologicaltaxonomists have tried to move away from that description bycreating an entirely new kingdom for a large set of groups oforganisms that have never quite comfortably fit into thetraditional plant-animal distinction, in other words, theProtista, which we have been talking about. One of the virtues ofthis approach is that it obviates the long-standing disputeregarding whether certain organisms, such as chlorophyll-bearingflagellates are plants or animals. Historically, some of theseorganisms have been vigorously claimed by the botanists andequally passionately claimed by the zoologists. Some of thesedisputes have had the intensity of the medieval theologicaldebates over the categories of Being which led to street fightsbetween monks. Isn't that a provocative image! As one mightexpect, this new approach to classification has not resolved allof the problems. The publication in 1990 of the Handbook ofProtoctista involved four chief editors and over 60 majorcontributors world-wide. In the introduction to this volume, LynnMargulis states: "Even today, many scientists (e.g.,especially cell biologists, plankton ecologists and geologists)routinely write about Protozoa and Algae as if they were phyla inthe Animal and Plant kingdoms, respectively. These organisms areno more 'one-celled animals and one-celled plants' than peopleare shell-less multicellular amebas." This is a radicalchallenge to a long-established tradition, but one which issupported by many very eminent scientists. However, this generalagreement still produces some significant differences of opinionabout both classification models and terminology. As we mentioned above, one particularly intense battle centeredover the attempt to replace the words "cilia" and"flagella" with the term "undulipodia."Somehow I find it rather comforting that scientists as well asphilosophers can still get so passionate about such arcanematters that have so little to do with a practical world in whichmost of the people have never even heard of, let alone observed,a cilium. The more I have studied micro-organisms, the more sympathy I havedeveloped for the view that denies saying that protozoa can beaccurately described as "one-celled animals," but theless patience I have for the excesses of overzealous taxonomists.One thing that becomes clear rather quickly is that the fourmajor groupings listed above (using the criteria of undulipodiaand sexual cycles) are arbitrary. They may turn out to have ahigh degree of utility and so become standardized until the nexttaxonomic "revolution," but we always need to remindourselves that these are human inventions for our ownconvenience. As a boy of 15, I was much taken with taxonomy andused to make elaborate charts tracing the evolution ofinvertebrates. They were, of course, naive, but they did help meunderstand certain problems and I came to think of taxonomy as away of clarifying the relationships between organisms. Not anymore! There is a dilemma regarding this kingdom of Protista. Rememberthose wonderful 19th Century volumes which had incredibly longexplanatory subtitles—well, that's true for the Handbookof Protoctista as well. Sometimes old habits die hard. Hereis the full subtitle, "The Structure, Cultivation, Habitats,And Life Histories Of The Eukaryotic Microorganisms And TheirDescendants Exclusive Of Animals, Plants, And Fungi: A guide tothe algae, ciliates, foraminifera, sporozoa, water molds, slimemolds and the other protoctists." This sounds like a parodyof a Victorian tome on Natural History, but, go look, and you'llfind I didn't make any of it up; it's all there and an ambitioussubtitle it is too. There is a lot going on in this subtitle. Note that it excludesfungi, but includes water molds and slime molds, so you can betthat if Dr. Margulis had her way, we would see some even moreradical terminological surgery. Just think what's being saidhere: we have molds that aren't fungi; algae that aren't plants;ciliates, foraminifera, and amoebae that aren't animals! Some ofthese protists are freshwater, some are marine, some areestuarine, some are terrestrial, some live on snow banks, somelive in thermal pools, some are parasitic, and some can survivefor decades in cysts. They range in size from organisms thatmeasure slightly less than 1 micron to the giant kelps that canexceed 100 meters. There are creatures here, like the sporozoans,that generally lack anything that we would readily identify asbehavior to ciliates like Urocentrum turbo which areabsolute dynamos whipping through the water at breakneck speeds.One could go on and on about the differences, but the real issueis: what do all of these diverse organisms have "incommon"? In the introduction to the handbook, Margulisadmits the following: "Unfortunately no neat definitionencompasses all the protoctistan diversity, except a definitionby exclusion." (p. xvi) As weak as this sounds, it really shouldn't surprise us too much.The world is an exceptionally complex place and sometimes we tendto forget that and trying to put things in order to help usunderstand these complexities is no easy task. We have to devisemethods of grouping things in ways that are useful. Imagine asystem in which we classified everything according to color. Wewould, of course, have to have specialists and soon thespecialists on things "red" would be involved in heateddisputes with specialists on things "orange" and on andon. To what point? There generally isn't any utility inclassifying things according to color. So, when thinking about classifying things, we have to thinkabout utility and also recognize that such systems are going toget more and more complicated as we learn more and more about thethings we want to classify. We also have to learn to ask theright questions. I used the phrase "in common" a bitago and this has been one of the major difficulties aboutclassification schemes and it is a difficulty which we inheritedfrom Plato and Aristotle. Early philosopher-scientists werelooking for a neat system of definitions which would be expressedas a series of criteria stating the essence of what something is.For example, Plato once defined man as "a featherlessbiped." Diogenes of Sinope, the Cynic, plucked a chicken,walked into Plato's lecture room, held it up and said: "Hereis Plato's man." So, you can see that difficulties aboutclassification have a long history.But back to the issue of "in common". We might ask whata Paramecium has "in common" with a giant kelpthat allows us to classify both as protists? — May I havethe envelope, please! — The answer is: nothing. Well,nothing very useful anyway. We can say that they're both alivebut so are plants, animals, and fungi and Dr. Margulis certainlywon't let us use that as a criterion for sneaking those into theKingdom of Heavenly Protoctists. They both live in water. Well,so do whales. Clearly, we need a different sort of approach.The philosopher Wittgenstein came up with a notion called"family resemblance" which might be helpful inunderstanding some things about classification. However, takenote—this idea has nothing to do with the fact that you maylook very much like your brother, especially if you're identicaltwins. Rather than looking for a set of criteria which groups ofthings have in common, we instead look for shared or connectedcriteria which allow us to assert a relationship. This soundsrather murky, but the basic idea is quite straightforward. Belowis a greatly over simplified example, but it will serve toillustrate the essential point. 041b061a72


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